Camelus bactrianus - Bactrian Camel
Ignore the title (“Camelus Bactrianus seu Dromedarius”), since all the camels depicted here are Bactrian.
One of the background images seems to be depicting a camel “kushing” (kneeling) on a struggling human, with an erect phallus. All camels become significantly more aggressive during breeding season, and the domesticated Bactrian camel has been described as “impossible to control” during that period. Obviously humans have managed to breed out some aggression/train many male Bactrian camels over the centuries, so “impossible” seems a bit hyperbolic, but even experienced handlers note that it’s much easier to avoid the males than train them.
The second background figure depicts…camels? Doing…something? I’m pretty sure camels don’t make a habit of sitting on their haunches facing each other, and I know for a fact that they don’t mate any differently than other camels, so I really don’t know. Maybe they’re just having a bit of a cuddle. Anyone knowledgeable on camelid behavior?
A Description of the Nature of Four-Footed Beasts. Joannes Jonstonus, 1678.