The lesser bilby, Macrotis leucura, also known as the yallara, was a rabbit-like marsupial that inhabited central Australia. The last known sighting and live collection was in 1931, and the last ever found specimen was a skull located in a Wedge-tailed Eagle nest in 1967. It is believed extinct.
The cause of extinction is debated, with some theories including competition with rabbits for food, hunting by native Australians, and habitat degradation, but most evidence lists predation by introduced cats and foxes to be the main cause.
Its cousin, the Greater Bilby (inspiration for the Easter Bilby of Australia), is currently listed as vulnerable.