Simplified drawing of the bones and selected muscles of the left hand of Ailurus fulgens (Red panda). Small arrows show the direction of pull of muscular fibres during contraction. Curved arrow shows the direction of rotation of the hand due to the supinatory action of the contracting muscle abductor pollicis longus. (a) Medio-ventral view, extended articulation. (b) Ventral view, partly flexed articulation. Note that even in slight flexion, digit 1 overlaps digit 2, whilst digit 5 overlaps digit 4, showing initial ‘closure of the palm’. apbo, muscles abductor pollicis brevis and oppones pollicis; apl, muscle abductor pollicis longus; fbdm, muscle flexor brevis digitorum manus; p, pisiform; rs, radial sesamoid.
Implications of the functional anatomy of the hand and forearm of Ailurus fulgens (Carnivora, Ailuridae) for the evolution of the ‘false-thumb’ in pandas by Mauricio Antón, Manuel J Salesa, Juan F Pastor, Stéphane Peigné, and Jorge Morales. J Anat. 2006 December; 209(6): 757–764. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00649.x
Drawing of a sleeping red panda dated 1852 in `Mammals of India’ by Brian Houghton Hodgson
For more information see: ‘Artefact of the month - May 2009. Red panda drawings’
From: RED PANDA Biology and Conservation of the First Panda Edited By ANGELA R. GLATSTON
Ursus ornatus (the black bear of the cordilleras) ; Procyon lotor, Lin. (the raccoon) ; Ailurus refulgens (the shining cat or red panda) (1834-1837)